Once the memory has been filled, it can be marked as executable so that the hook thunk code it contains can execute. In some instances, an overestimated or maximum amount of memory that the size of the hook thunk will not exceed may be allocated. In other instances, the memory may be allocated after the size of the hook thunk has been determined, although in some cases the size of the hook thunk may be influenced by the address at which it is located.
In some instances, the memory may be allocated from a special executable heap, in which multiple hook thunks may share a single page of virtual memory in order to conserve the process's address space. In other instances, memory for each hook thunk may reside in its own page or pages of virtual memory. At , start and end pointers demarcating the hook site in the compiled method are computed. Once the memory address of the hook thunk is known, it is possible to calculate the minimum size in bytes of a detour hook sufficient to redirect execution from the target compiled method to the hook thunk.
In this example, method of FIG. Given the entry point of the target compiled method and the number of bytes that will be overwritten by the detour hook, method delineates a hook site in the native code of the target compiled method, with at a start pointer indicating the first byte of the hook site and an end pointer indicating the first byte after the hook site. If a sufficient hook site was delineated as determined at , method continues at If the native code at the target compiled method's entry point cannot accommodate a detour hook of the required size, method moves to to indicate failure.
At , native code implementing the hook thunk is generated and stored in the memory allocated at Method requires specification of a replacement compiled method, and therefore the same must be supplied to method At , native code constituting the detour hook is generated e. The native code is then written to the hook site delineated at If the detour hook was successfully installed at as determined at , then method continues at to indicate success. If the detour hook could not be installed, method moves to to indicate failure. At , an indication that a detour hook was installed at the entry point of the target compiled method to redirect execution to a newly generated hook thunk that conditionally executes a given replacement compiled method is returned.
At , an indication that a detour hook could not be installed at the entry point of the target compiled method is returned. At , an address corresponding to the entry point of a target compiled method is identified, with the start pointer initialized to reference the entry point, although it may be updated at in the loop that follows.
The operation at constitutes the beginning of a first loop in method At , a determination is made as to whether the instruction at the address currently referenced by the start pointer is a no-operation NOP or equivalent instruction. If a method begins with any NOP-equivalent instructions, the target compiled method's true entry point which may be targeted by recursive calls, for instance may be located immediately afterward, and therefore this true entry point should instead be hooked.
If the instruction referenced by the start pointer is a NOP-equivalent instruction, method continues at to perform another iteration of the first loop. Otherwise, method moves to At , the start pointer is advanced to skip the NOP-equivalent instruction and move to to perform another iteration of the loop. At , the minimum size in bytes of a detour hook sufficient to redirect execution from the compiled method to the hook thunk is calculated.
In this example, method receives the size from method of FIG. In other instances, the size may be computed or recomputed during computation of the start and end pointers. At , the end pointer is initialized to equal the start pointer, which was initialized at and possibly updated any number of times at The end pointer may be updated at in the loop that follows. The operations of constitute the beginning of a second loop in method At , method decodes the instruction currently referenced by the end pointer.
Decoding an instruction is a CPU instruction set-dependent operation; on the x86 and x64 architectures, it may involve determining an instruction's prefixes, opcode, postbytes, offset value, and immediate values, as applicable. At , a determination is made as to whether the instruction decoded at can be safely relocated as part of detour hook installation.
In this example, many instructions are deemed unsafe to relocate if overwriting the instruction or executing it from a different address could cause an undesired exception or a violation of other code's understanding of the execution environment. For example, relocating a relative branch instruction will likely cause an exception when that instruction is later executed, unless the instruction is adjusted to compensate for the relocation.
As another example, relocating a division instruction or an instruction generated by the JIT compiler to test for a null object reference could cause exception handling to fail in the event that the instruction faults, because the relocated instruction would not be executing in an address range recognized by the runtime. If the instruction decoded at can be safely relocated, method continues at At , the end pointer is advanced to the address immediately following the decoded instruction. If the address of the end pointer is at least the required number of bytes after the address of the start pointer as determined at , where the number of bytes is the size calculated at , then method moves to to indicate success.
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If the address of the end pointer is fewer than the required number of bytes after the address of the start pointer, then method continues at At , a determination is made as to whether the instruction decoded at is terminal i. In this example, decoding ends after an unconditional branch, return, or call instruction is decoded, because it cannot easily be determined if valid code follows such instructions, although alternative implementations may not be so limited. In the case of a call instruction, decoding ends after the instruction both because the callee could be declared noreturn meaning execution will never return from the callee to the instruction after the call , and because the call instruction will be rewritten as a sequence consisting of a push instruction followed by an unconditional jump instruction at - and - of FIG.
If the decoded instruction is terminal in this sense, method moves to to indicate failure, because an insufficient number of bytes were decoded, and yet decoding cannot continue past the terminal instruction. If the decoded instruction is not terminal, method moves to to perform another iteration of the second loop.
At , an indication that the start and end pointers were computed successfully for the given compiled method is returned. At , an indication that start and end pointers demarcating a hook site of a sufficient size could not be computed for the given compiled method is returned.
In this example, method is given the start pointer computed at using example method illustrated in FIG. At , the CPU instruction set used by application code executing in the current process is identified. In the illustrated example, all application code in a particular process is assumed to use a single instruction set, even though operating system code such as the Windows on Windows emulation layer for bit platforms may use a different instruction set.
In this example, it is sufficient for a software implementation of method to determine the instruction set used by its own native code. This information can be retrieved with a run-time check, or it can be hard-coded at compile time through the use of preprocessor directives, among other alternatives. At , a determination is made as to whether the instruction set identified at is bit x86 also known as IA32 or IA If so, method continues at ; otherwise, method moves to In this example, a five-byte relative jump is sufficient to transfer execution from any address to any other address in a bit x86 environment.
Thus, at , method emits such a relative jump instruction, encoded as an E 9 h byte representing the opcode, followed by a bit integer expressing the difference between the given hook thunk address and the address that will immediately follow the instruction once it is written at the start pointer address i. Implicit bit integer truncation ensures that the relative jump instruction will arrive at the correct destination address regardless of whether the result of the calculation is positive or negative or would cause an arithmetic carry or borrow.
Method then moves to to indicate success. If so, method continues at ; otherwise, method moves to to indicate failure, or, alternatively, address other CPU-specific determinations. At , the offset needed to construct a five-byte relative jump that transfers execution from the start pointer address to the hook thunk address is computed. The offset is the difference between the given hook thunk address and the address that will immediately follow the instruction once it is written at the start pointer address i. At , a determination is made as to whether the offset computed at can be represented in 32 bits.
For any other offset, method continues at to consider alternative instruction sequences. At , a five-byte push-immediate instruction followed by a single-byte return instruction, for a total of six bytes of code, is emitted. This instruction sequence allows an execution transfer to an arbitrary bit address, although in terms of space, it costs one byte more than a five-byte relative jump.
At , a ten-byte instruction that loads the RAX register with an arbitrary address, followed by a two-byte indirect jump instruction that accomplishes the execution transfer to that address, is emitted. Although this instruction sequence allows execution to be transferred to any valid bit address, its relatively large size may prohibit hooking in some situations, and it irrevocably overwrites the original contents of the RAX register, which may not be safe in all cases.
Alternative x64 instruction sequences are possible but are omitted from FIG. For example, a six-byte, RIP-relative indirect jump instruction followed by an eight-byte code pointer could transfer execution to an arbitrary bit address without modifying RAX, although it requires a fourteen-byte hook site. After emitting the instructions, method continues at to indicate success. At , an indication that the desired detour hook code was generated successfully is returned. In some instances, the indication may include the detour hook code or an address pointing thereto.
At , an indication that the current instruction set is not supported is returned, or other CPU-specific operations may be performed. In this example, only the x86 and x64 instruction sets are supported, although additional instruction sets such as Intel Itanium IA64 or IA could be supported as well in alternative implementations.
The native code generated can be CPU instruction set-dependent. At , an address of memory in which to store the generated hook thunk code is identified. At , native code that preserves volatile argument registers is generated. Code generated for the bit x64 architecture, meanwhile, preserves the contents of the RCX, RDX, R8, and R9 registers, as these registers are used for arguments but are not required to be preserved, according to the x64 Application Binary Interface specification. Other general-purpose registers of either architecture are not typically expected to contain any meaningful value upon entry to a subroutine, so the example code generated at does not preserve them unless they are nonvolatile by convention and will be temporarily modified elsewhere in the hook thunk code.
In this example, a register is preserved by pushing its contents onto the stack before the first instruction or call that could modify the register, and popping the preserved contents from the stack into the register after the last instruction or call that could access the register. In this example, the only portion of hook thunk code that could modify volatile argument registers is a call to the TlsGetValue API, which is generated at At , code that retrieves the applicable hook state from thread-local storage TLS is generated. For purposes of this example, hook state is meant to refer to data indicating whether a hook thunk should transfer execution to a replacement compiled method i.
In this example, hook state is maintained as bits in a TLS slot accessed via the TlsGetValue Windows API function, although a TLS slot could be used to instead reference a data structure, or ThreadStatic variables, global variables, or other alternatives could be used. For purposes of this example, each TLS slot is considered to comprise 32 bits, and thus, an application that deploys more than 32 hooks must group them so that multiple hooks are jointly enabled or disabled by a single hook state bit. Groups of methods that will never directly or indirectly call or be called by one another may share a hook state bit.
At , native code is generated that restores the contents of the volatile argument registers preserved by the code generated at At , native code is generated that transfers execution to the replacement compiled method if the hook state retrieved by the code generated at indicates that the hook is enabled. If the hook is disabled, the generated code instead executes the original target compiled method by transferring execution to the displaced code that will be emitted at and subsequently adjusted.
At , a copy of the original code from the hook site in the target compiled method is emitted. Since the code in the hook site will be overwritten by a detour hook, a copy of that code is to be retained so that it can be executed as a prerequisite to executing the rest of the original target compiled method. However, the copy of the hook site code will not be executing at its original address, so certain adjustments may need to be made.
These adjustments are the subject of the remainder of method ; however, it should be understood that method describes an example set of adjustments, and that other adjustments not described in method may apply to various instructions of various CPU architectures. In some instances, an unadjusted copy of the hook site code may also be maintained, so that a hooked method may be unhooked simply by restoring the hook site to contain the original bytes of the unadjusted copy. In other instances, the adjustments may be reversed at runtime instead of maintaining separate adjusted and unadjusted copies of the hook site code.
At , the last instruction of the original hook site code emitted at is decoded. Method continues at to begin adjusting the instruction as appropriate. In this example, adjustments suitable for the x86 and x64 architectures are considered, although it should be understood that related techniques may apply to other CPU architectures. At , a determination is made as to whether the instruction decoded at is an indirect call, such as a call to an address stored in a register or memory location.
If so, method continues at to adjust the instruction. At , native code is inserted prior to the instruction decoded at , where the inserted instruction pushes an artificial return address onto the stack. The end pointer computed at using, for example, method of FIG. Therefore, the end pointer address is pushed as the artificial return address. On the x86 architecture, for instance, a five-byte push-immediate instruction may be emitted, while on the x64 architecture, a twelve-byte sequence to load and push the RAX register may be emitted, among other alternatives.
At , the instruction decoded at is changed from an indirect call to an indirect jump with equivalent arguments by replacing its opcode. In some cases, however, the call instruction may need to be adjusted further, such as if it is an x64 instruction that uses RIP-relative addressing. Thus, the call instruction is replaced by native code to push an artificial return address emitted at followed by a jump instruction that transfers execution to the original destination of the call, which together emulate the operation of the original call instruction.
Method then moves to to indicate completion and return the generated hook thunk code. At , a determination is made as to whether the instruction decoded at is a relative call. At , native code to push the end pointer address is inserted prior to the instruction decoded at At , the relative call or relative jump instruction decoded at is replaced with native code that transfers execution to the original destination of the instruction, as relocating a relative call or relative jump changes its destination.
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On the x86 architecture, an instruction of either type can simply be replaced by a five-byte relative jump with an adjusted offset, while on the x64 architecture, various instruction sequences may be possible based on the source and destination addresses. Method then moves to to indicate completion.
If the instruction decoded at is a relative jump as determined at , method moves to to adjust or replace the instruction. Otherwise, method continues to If the instruction decoded at is a return instruction or an indirect jump, such as a jump to an address stored in a register or memory location, as determined at , then method moves to to indicate completion without emitting any additional code.
Otherwise, method continues to to emit additional code. At , native code is emitted that transfers execution to the end pointer address, which is the address immediately following the last instruction of the hook site. Here, it is known that a hook site was successfully demarcated, and that the final instruction in the hook site is not a call, jump, return, or other terminal or invalid instruction, so it is assumed that execution will continue from the last instruction of the hook site to the first instruction after the hook site. Thus, an instruction or instruction sequence to transfer execution to the first instruction after the hook site is appended to the adjusted copy of hook site code.
Method then continues to to indicate completion. At , method completes by returning the generated hook thunk code. At , a hook site and hook code for installation are identified. The hook site is demarcated by a start pointer and an end pointer, and native code constituting a detour hook is identified to install by overwriting the hook site.
After this point, the current thread should not directly or indirectly attempt to acquire ownership of any resources such as critical sections and mutual exclusion objects. As a defense against deadlocks or other indefinite waiting, the current thread may, prior to suspending or blocking any other threads, start a watchdog thread that will resume suspended threads and lift the block on new threads once the current thread has successfully installed the hook or after an amount of time has elapsed.
Such a watchdog thread would not be suspended at At , the current thread context of each suspended thread is retrieved e. Rather than retrieving the contexts of all suspended threads at once, it is sufficient to retrieve one thread's context and then examine it at before retrieving the next thread's context.
If a thread is determined at to have been executing in the hook site, method can then move to without examining any other thread's context.
MANAGED CODE ROOTKITS
At , a determination is made as to whether any suspended thread's context retrieved at indicates that the thread was suspended while executing within the hook site, according to the instruction pointer recorded in the context. If the instruction pointer address is not less than the start pointer address of the hook site and is less than the end pointer address of the hook site, then the thread was executing within the hook site, and method continues at Otherwise, method moves to to install the hook.
At , method resumes all threads suspended at , and also disables the wait condition blocking new threads if one was activated at In instances where a watchdog thread was started at , the watchdog thread may be signaled by the current thread to resume all suspended threads and unblock new threads. At , a determination is made as to whether an excessive number of attempts iterations of the loop in method have been made to suspend threads such that no thread is suspended while executing in the hook site.
If so, then method moves to to indicate failure, rather than repeating indefinitely. Otherwise, method moves to to perform another iteration of the loop. It is possible threads may not leave the hook site during this time, or that other threads may enter the hook site. Therefore, method returns to to perform another iteration of the loop. At , it is known that all threads of the current process, other than the current thread and any watchdog thread created at , are suspended or blocked while executing outside of the hook site, and therefore it is safe to install the given detour hook at the hook site.
In this example, the memory containing the hook site is made writable using the VirtualProtect API function, then the native code generated by method of FIG. In some instances, the hook site may be larger than the detour hook, so it may not be necessary to operate upon the memory at the end of the hook site that is not overwritten by the detour hook.
At , as at , all threads suspended at are resumed, and the wait condition blocking new threads is disabled if one was activated at At , an indication that the detour hook was successfully installed at the hook site is returned. Conversely, at an indication that the detour hook could not be safely installed at the hook site is returned. While various implementations are described in this specification, various alternatives are available and can be used.
These and other alternatives are considered in addition to those examples described herein. For example, different alternatives exist for ensuring that native code exists in memory for a particular method, including the alternative of calling the JIT compiler directly. Alternatives for locating in memory the native code of a compiled method also exist.
For example, alternative means of retrieving a code pointer associated with a compiled method are available, including the use of a delegate. Once a new System. Further, the. NET profiler. Hooking the JIT compiler's compileMethod function could also provide a vantage point for locating the native code of a compiled method, although the function and therefore the hook may not be invoked for all methods of interest precompiled methods, for example. Although platform-provided means are preferable, approaches that extract internal information by unsupported means are possible. Managed code could first call a snitch method with a long list of arguments, some of which reference an object of interest while others serve as distinct signatures.
The object reference could then be retrieved from beside or among the signatures. In many cases, interop methods, such as those of the System.
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Marshal class, can be used as well as unmanaged functions. With the internal address of the managed object, it is possible to read the object's member fields or locate its method table. Still further, one approach for locating native code may comprise scanning the JIT code heap for native code matching a particular signature associated with the method of interest, based on characteristics of the method known to the developer or determined by analyzing the method's bytecode.
Such characteristics may include the number of arguments, distinct integer and string constants used in the method, and calls made by or to the method. Still other means of locating native code may include using. Additional methods of modifying the native code of the target compiled method to redirect execution to the native code of the replacement compiled method may be available.
For example, if the replacement method entirely replaces the target method, in that the original target method will never need to be invoked, then several possibilities exist. The simplest consists of hooking the target compiled method with a branch directly to the replacement compiled method, rather than a branch to a hook thunk. Alternatively, if the replacement compiled method is no larger than the target compiled method, then the target compiled method could instead be overwritten by the native code of the replacement.
Instruction pointer-relative offsets in the replacement code would need to be adjusted, or the embodying instructions would need to be translated, which could increase the size of the code in some instances and therefore require more adjustment. Code pointers, such as those of a compiled switch statement, may also be identified and adjusted. Furthermore, to prevent garbage collection from corrupting the program's state, the garbage collector's understanding of the region of overwritten code should be modified, or alternatively, garbage collection can be postponed whenever the replacement method is on the call stack.
Exception information likewise should be updated or superseded by custom handling. In another example, instead of a detour hook that implements a branch, a target compiled method could be hooked with an invalid instruction, a software interrupt, a hardware breakpoint, or even a guard page, among other possibilities. Alternatives and options for providing facilities and operations by which the replacement method can invoke the original code of the target compiled method may also be available.
For instance, the replacement method may be provided with a Delegate or System. MethodBase object that allows invocation of the original target compiled method, starting at the displaced code rather than at the hooked entry point. The object could be passed to the replacement method by the hook thunk in the form of an additional argument, although this may require the hook thunk to shift the intercepted arguments in order to insert a new one.
The object could also be stored in a static field, or in a global data structure that the replacement method would access using some hook-specific identifier as a key, in order to look up the relevant object. Alternatively, a different hooking model where the replacement method serves more as a filter could be implemented. Other suitable alternatives can be used or included in the methods and systems of the present disclosure as appropriate. Implementations of the subject matter and the functional operations described in this specification can be implemented in digital electronic circuitry, or in computer software, firmware, or hardware, including the structures disclosed in this specification and their structural equivalents, or in combinations of one or more of them.
Implementations of the subject matter described in this specification can be implemented as one or more computer program products, i. In addition, the one or more computer program products can be tangibly encoded in a propagated signal, which is an artificially generated signal, e.
The computer readable storage device can be a machine-readable storage device, a machine-readable storage substrate, a memory device, or a combination of one or more of them. The apparatus can include, in addition to hardware, code that creates an execution environment for the computer program in question, e.
In addition, the apparatus can employ various different computing model infrastructures, such as web services, distributed computing and grid computing infrastructures. A computer program also known as a program, software, software application, script, or code can be written in any form of programming language, including compiled or interpreted languages, declarative or procedural languages, and it can be deployed in any form, including as a standalone program or as a module, component, subroutine, or other unit suitable for use in a computing environment.
A computer program does not necessarily correspond to a file in a file system. A program can be stored in a portion of a file that holds other programs or data e. A computer program can be deployed to be executed on one computer or on multiple computers that are located at one site or distributed across multiple sites and interconnected by a communication network. The processes and logic flows described in this specification can be performed by one or more programmable processors executing one or more computer programs to perform functions by operating on input data and generating output.
The processes and logic flows can also be performed by, and apparatus can also be implemented as, special purpose logic circuitry, e. Processors suitable for the execution of a computer program include, by way of example, both general and special purpose microprocessors, and any one or more processors of any kind of digital computer.
Generally, a processor will receive instructions and data from a read only memory or a random access memory or both. The essential elements of a computer are a processor for performing instructions and one or more memory devices for storing instructions and data. Generally, a computer will also include, or be operatively coupled to receive data from or transfer data to, or both, one or more mass storage devices for storing data, e. However, a computer need not have such devices.
Moreover, a computer can be embedded in another device, e. Devices suitable for storing computer program instructions and data include all forms of nonvolatile memory, media and memory devices, including by way of example semiconductor memory devices, e. The processor and the memory can be supplemented by, or incorporated in, special purpose logic circuitry.
To provide for interaction with a user, implementations of the subject matter described in this specification can be implemented on a computer having a display device, e. Other kinds of devices can be used to provide for interaction with a user as well; for example, feedback provided to the user can be any form of sensory feedback, e. Implementations of the subject matter described in this specification can be implemented in a computing system that includes a back end component, e.
The components of the system can be interconnected by any form or medium of digital data communication, e. The computing system can include clients and servers. A client and server are generally remote from each other and typically interact through a communication network. The relationship of client and server arises by virtue of computer programs running on the respective computers and having a client-server relationship to each other. While this specification contains many implementation details, these should not be construed as limitations on the scope of any implementation or of what may be claimed, but rather as descriptions of features specific to particular implementations of the subject matter.
Certain features that are described in this specification in the context of separate embodiments can also be implemented in combination in a single embodiment.
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Conversely, various features that are described in the context of a single embodiment can also be implemented in multiple embodiments separately or in any suitable subcombination. Moreover, although features may be described above as acting in certain combinations and even initially claimed as such, one or more features from a claimed combination can in some cases be excised from the combination, and the claimed combination may be directed to a subcombination or variation of a subcombination. Similarly, while operations are depicted in the drawings in a particular order, this should not be understood as requiring that such operations be performed in the particular order shown or in sequential order, or that all illustrated operations be performed, to achieve desirable results.
In certain circumstances, multitasking and parallel processing may be advantageous. Moreover, the separation of various system components in the implementations described above should not be understood as requiring such separation in all implementations, and it should be understood that the described program components and systems can generally be integrated together in a single software product or packaged into multiple software products.
In other words, although this disclosure has been described in terms of certain embodiments and generally associated methods, alterations and permutations of these embodiments and methods will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, the above description of example embodiments does not define or constrain this disclosure. Other changes, substitutions, and alterations are also possible without departing from the spirit and scope of this disclosure. Effective date : Year of fee payment : 4. An example glossary of select terms used in the present disclosure is provided herein: ahead-of-time compilation or AOT compilation: See NGen.
NET modules. An assembly constitutes the fundamental deployable program element—application or library—in the. Not to be confused with assembly language, which is the lowest-level, human-readable programming language intended for translation into machine code. NET Framework that implements a standard collection of types organized under the System namespace, essentially constituting an Application Programming Interface API to be used by other. NET assemblies. Unless otherwise noted, refers to bytecode of the.
Such native code could be generated at runtime by JIT compilation, or between product installation and load time by ahead-of-time compilation, or it could exist as part of the. NET Framework in the case of an internalcall or runtime method. A method is called or invoked by directing execution to the method's entry point.
A sufficiently simple method's epilog may consist only of the instruction or instructions necessary to exit the method, assuming that optimizations were enabled at the time the method's native code was generated. Compare to prolog and method body. To hook code is to modify that code, or some means by which the code is reached, in order to cause execution destined for that code to be redirected.
Sometimes referred to as instrumenting or instrumentation. NET Framework is to JIT compile it as native code integrated directly into the native code of the calling method rather than as a separate compiled method Inlining allows the JIT compiler to institute a number of optimizations, including omission of the call instruction, return instruction, and prolog and epilog code. Inlining of a method happens separately for each caller of the method that is JIT compiled, based in each case upon the characteristics of the caller's code at the call site e.
Not to be confused with the process of loading and setting up a software product on a system that is also called installation. A reference to that class instance is implicitly passed to the method as a parameter accessed in C via the keyword this. Compare to static method. Intermediate Language or IL: Human-readable representation of. NET bytecode instructions, analogous to assembly language as a human-readable representation of machine code instructions.
NET Framework as native code rather than as bytecode. The method can nonetheless be called from managed code. Compare to runtime attribute. Subsequent invocations of the method will be directed to execute the resulting native code. See JIT compiler. Just-In-Time compiler or JIT compiler: A component of a managed code environment that compiles translates bytecode into native machine code instructions. JIT compilation is often performed on a per-method basis, which imposes a one-time cost when the method is first invoked, but benefits performance on subsequent invocations because native code executes more quickly than does the interpretation of bytecode.
JIT compilation also has a memory cost associated with retaining the resultant native code in memory. Under the. NET Framework, all functions must be methods—that is, every function must be associated with a type.
Managed Code Rootkits: Hooking into Runtime Environments
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